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Sunday, December 7, 2008

Of Simpsons and Samurai

What makes something that is popular part of culture, and the reverse, what makes anything that is part of culture more popular to point of being commonly understood than other portions? The United States has long been said to be suffering from a lack of cultural literacy. But what is that? Definition from Wikipedia “Cultural literacy is the ability to converse fluently in the idioms, allusions and informal content which creates and constitutes a dominant culture. From being familiar with street signs to knowing historical references to understanding the most recent slang, literacy demands interaction with the culture and reflection of it. Knowledge of a canonical set of literature is not sufficient in and of itself when engaging with others in a society, as life is interwoven with art, expression, history and experience. Cultural literacy requires familiarity with a broad range of trivia and implies the use of that trivia in the creation of a communal language and collective knowledge. Cultural literacy stresses the knowledge of those pieces of information which content creators will assume the audience already possesses.” So, in order to be fully conversant you need to know the roots of a cultural idiom and the icons of culture, but also you need to understand it and be conversant with it in the modern language.

An example is The Simpsons cartoon. In an episode called “Homer Loves Flanders” Homer Simpson has driven Ned Flanders a bit mad, and in his dreams Flanders dreams of shooting people from a bell tower, only to have one of the possible victims, a postal worker return fire with his own concealed firearm. However much one laughs at the top layer of Homer going so overboard that he drives kind Ned mad, we have an example of cultural literacy. Ned’s dream reflects two moments/episodes of American cultural history that entered common thought. On August 1, 1966 Charles Whitman ascended the top floor of the UT Austin admin building, with an open observation deck, and murdered 14 people and wounded 31 others. When Ned shot at the Postal worker who returned fire it was use of a then common worry of Postal workers going mad and shooting people, or going postal. My son being 10 has no concept of either event/episode but laughed uproariously at the humor of the story. He didn’t get the whole multilayered joke because he wasn’t and rightly, couldn’t have been culturally literate enough yet to understand it all.

So we have symbols in culture, words, iconic images, that tell us clues how to feel, think or respond. I spoke to Arthurian Legend being a keystone of English culture. In Japan a very different cultural region from England/UK, the cultural touch point is more a romanticized era than a set of stories. The Japanese have made great strides, became modern despite having a medieval system as late as 1870. But they never forgot the Samurai, Emperor, Shogun, and more who peopled their stories, who lived in the era, when violence and a vital caste system allowed for a great and powerful cultural story book. The Japanese could hardly forget moments from their past because however modern they are as a people, they can still see the Emperor’s castle and residence, the castles from the Tokugawa and earlier regimes. The very aspects of the world they left by becoming modern were never lost to them, for they simply developed a culture that kept the keystones, and never ignored them.

The arts that have grown since are vibrant and varied, but also, they still cling to the aesthetic of “Chrysanthemum and Sword”, being beautiful and unique, at the same time as stark and often simple. Japan’s legends and lore are vital to their being. Much like the American image of Cowboys and the Frontier, Japan’s memories of Samurai and court intrigues make their world go round.

Saturday, November 29, 2008

Black Friday

For those of you who don't know, I work night shift at the local Wal-Mart Supercenter. Blitz is our term for "Black Friday Sale". It should be called the "Banzai Charge Sale".

You know that small part of the brain that tells you "maybe I shouldn't act like this in public"? Yeah, you know, the "social network" part of the brain?

Well, that part stopped working for about 400+ people this morning.

There really is no words to describe what I saw. But I shall try. Because people need to know. They need to know that they look completely idiotic when they start rushing for things.

We had people shoving, kicking, and grabbing things out of people's hands. We had two sheriffs at each door, plus two or three in electronics to guard stuff. The sale started at 5:00 AM, and people were not allowed to touch the merchandise until the prescribed time.

Being my first Blitz, I was sent to guard the jackets and hoodies. I was like, "Oh, okay. No big deal. It's just jackets. I won't have a ton of people to watch."

Oh. My mistake. Around midnight, some people started showing up. Two or three people. Nothing big yet. I could look down the isle and see people setting up lawn chairs in front of some TV and computer pallets. That was expected.

What wasn't expected was the 40 women who all gathered around the coats and jackets. Around 4:30 AM, we had gathered quite a crowd. And they all started to get closer to the jackets and I had to keep them off of 'em. Here's how a typical conversation went. Stuff in italics are what I thought but did not say.

"Ma'am, I'm sorry, you can't touch the merchandise before five." Can't you see the five signs that I hung up that clearly say "No Merchandise Before 5:00 AM"?

"Oh, I was just looking at the sizes."

Sure you were. I saw those grubby fingers getting ready to snatch it off. "I'm sorry, but you can't even look at the sizes. You can look all you want after 5."

"Well, she was touching it!"

Are you kidding me? We've resorted to name calling? Kinda like a two year old. "I'm sorry ma'am. I can't watch everyone at once. If I see anyone touch it, I will tell them not to."
At 4:55 people were literally starting to press in on me. I prepared to cut the tape around the section and run.

4:57. People were reaching their hands out to hover over what they wanted. I eyed them and they pulled their hands back.

5:00. Think piranhas and a chicken bone.

5:10. Half of the jackets are gone.

5:20. The jackets are gone.

It was wall-to-wall of people. Literally. We had all 25 cash registers open, plus the four scan-your-own isles. People were backed up from the registers to the merchandise (about 5 or 6 buggy widths), plus more waiting that were lined up to the garden center. You just could not get through the electronics section. I had to use an employee door and walk through the back rooms (they run the length of the floor) just to get to the time clock to clock out.

I heard about the Long Island, NY Wal-Mart this morning. A 34-year-old employee was trampled to death. And somewhere else, a pregnant woman lost her baby from being trampled.

Have any of you gone shopping during Blitz before?
Were you ever caught up in the actions of "snatch and grab"?
Have you ever been hurt or hurt someone accidentally?

Sunday, November 23, 2008

Is It Really a Deal?

I sit in my high tower, staring at the people below. It is dark, and all I have is the red glow of neon to comfort me. And the green glow of greed to amuse me.

You see, this game was designed with people’s greed in mind. I laugh to myself each time I offer an amount higher than the last, and yet, people still continue. They want more. Much more. Whatever they want, it needs to be more. These people are fascinating.

Only the host and I know this game. Really know it. He laughs along with me, though I am amused more, for I don’t have to deal with the greedy roaches. And they are roaches—scurrying around, taking what’s not theirs, trying to get more of what’s not theirs. And almost succeeding…if only they didn’t run into the mist of bug spray first.

And that is the same sort of effect that opening a case of high numbers has on the greedy person. They’re all hyped up, hoping to get that last bit of low numbers, when, the pesticide can in the shape of 1,000,000 million dollars gets opened in a case. When everyone else groans, I laugh, knowing that the greed overcame them in the end.

They don’t realize what’s happening. Every now and then, I’ll mess with their heads and offer them really hard choices, knowing that they probably won’t get the money. And if they do, all well and good for them; I still have more money than they do.

I am the banker. The people don’t play the game.

The game plays the people.

Author’s Note: I was at my grandmother’s house a long time ago, flipping slowly through the channels on the TV, when I came across a game show called "Deal or No Deal". The way to play was a bit fuzzy, but what I did gather, was that one player tried to eliminate the low numbers, while trying to keep the high numbers. It’s all based on money. After every round, there is a man hidden behind tinted windows called the banker, who makes the player a deal of hard straight cash. The player must then decide whether he wants to keep the straight out money, or keep playing the game to go for a million dollars. The odds of the person picking the case of the high numbers increases as the game goes on, for the cases are eliminated one by one, and of course, the person usually chose No Deal, and then lost in the next round and went home with nothing. I  realized that it was completely based on people’s greed—and human nature. So I thought of this little contemplation in the viewpoint of an important person.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

SYMBOLS of popular culture

That we recognize symbols in culture is not amazing, we seem to be hard wired to recognize symbols and symbolism. Whether we understand the symbolism or not is not the point. When we look at culture it is filled with images that tell us what we are supposed to connote some message from the work. In the movie BLACK RAIN with Michael Douglas a plane leaves the United States airspace of red sun, white sky and blue ocean (The US Flag: Red White and Blue) to land in Japan, with a largely white sky and blazing Red rising sun (The Japanese flag of the Rising Sun.) It is not necessarily important but it adds to the layers of symbolic information, and the viewer may or may not understand it more than just feeling something, but, it is there.

Some symbolism retains power and value throughout human experience. The story of Saint George killing the Dragon is powerful, but a mythic story that arose from a person who did something very much the same in terms of choices made. Saint George comes from a historical figure who chose not to convert to a different religious faith in the face of a demand from an Emperor. He was executed as a result. The mythic story follows a Knight who slays a dragon, but the mythic root is that in our lives we are able to make heroic decisions, and the dragon, that beast of conformity and hate can be slain. The Christian metal band Demon Hunter has an image of a slain Demon skull as the symbol of their band. They do not linger over lyrics of killing demons, they speak about choices and morality, they slay demons with words. The symbolism here is unchanged, and there are many many other instances I could show for the same sort of usage.

Death itself is symbolized by a Skull. In the past the use of a skull in imagery meant very clearly that death was near, that a portent of danger was evident, and that one should be careful, exhibit fear, or wariness. But lately in many forms of culture, you see the skull being used not as an omen of horror, or danger, but of empowerment over such a thing. Whereas Skeletor from He-Man and Darth Vader of Star Wars were given skull like faces, you can see skate boarders wearing clothing with skulls on it to show they are brave in the face of danger. You can see it in the Christian metal band AS I LAY DYING, who uses the skull to symbolize that Death is a doorway to a different existence, and that being slave to the flesh rather than the spirit is death itself. This usage of imagery can cause confusion, as clearly when symbols change meaning people from before and after do not connate the same thing from the symbol. When I see a pirate flag and the Skull and Cross bones I do not necessarily think I am about to die, or be in danger, but I certainly don’t see Pirates of the Caribbean as being about men who are evil and wishing to plunder.

Finally some images we create might have no greater meaning (although Abbey Road does have a number of symbolic images and meanings, which I might discuss in future articles... although I am no expert regarding it) but enter into culture due to the widespread popularity, notoriety, and importance. The Beatles were very much a famous, powerful, important band, and everything they did had a place in culture, that was revered and examined. Whether they were meaning to do so was really not the point. They were considered at the edge of culture and you can see from album covers and personal statements and music lyrics from the band and members, they were a cultural movement. The album Abbey Road was very important, lovely to listen to, and musically valuable. But the impact it had can be seen in the numerous parodies of it. Many dozens of bands, individual artists and popular culture mediums utilized the familiarity and fame of the image, to portray themselves in the same important light. The image enclosed shows just the tip of the iceberg of people imitating the image.

Symbolic information exists whether we understand it or not, but is the symbol used a constant, or has the culture changed it, what band, author or game is so powerful and important to become part of the imagery of popular culture?

Monday, October 20, 2008

Trauma Center Second Opinion

Trauma Center: Second Opinion poses as a sequel, when it is really just the original with a fresh coat of paint. The storyline (still) follows the emerging medical career of one Derek Stiles. Stiles is an up and coming surgeon with a lot to learn about surgery, and about life. He and his plucky young assistant Angie fight to save lives and punch disease in the face.

The story is rife with melodrama that would not feel out of place on daytime soaps. Themes weave through suicide attempts, bio-terrorism, euthanasia, and inter-office canoodling. While the storyline itself feels current and topical, the delivery is quite dated. Static images accompany scrolling text like an RPG for the SNES. The pain of reading is exacerbated by the fact that the game is almost too chatty. Before each surgery there is dialogue with storyline development. There is also a longer dialogue scene between each surgery. This means that for each minute that is spent with a scalpel, two more are spent reading about it. Just give me something to suture already. Moreover, the themes are very dark, even with a T rating.

All of this obnoxious discussion and medical mystery magically disappears when the mission starts. The gameplay is (big surprise) the best part of the game. The mission will begin with a senior resident explaining the procedure to Stiles. It is important to pay attention, because they will not be helpful during the surgery, and Angie only seems to chime in when the good doctor makes a mistake.

The game uses both the remote and the nunchuck. The analog stick on the nunchuck is used to select the appropriate medical tool, such as a scalpel, syringe, or ultrasound. After grabbing the correct tool, the player simply points to the screen and uses it. With this simple control scheme players can master time-honored medical techniques such as the connect-the-dots cut and the zig-zag stitch. Believe me, nothing is more rewarding than pulling a shard of glass out of a man's heart and then using a needle and thread to clumsily stitch it shut.

The controls are very precise, which means that they precisely demonstrate how imprecise I am. Though the objectives such as connecting the dots are clearly laid out, my clumsy hand can't seem to complete them without mangling the patient. The worst mechanic in the game is the defibrillator. Every now and then, Angie decides that the only way to save a patient is to electrocute them. During these times, players must hold their wiimote and nunchuck like handles of a defibrillator and push them toward the screen. This simply does not work. I just ended up shaking the controllers back and forth, and hoping it would work.

Most of the missions are some derivation of the first one. The formula is as follows. Wipe the wound with an all-purpose healing gel. Then cut along the dotted line. Once inside, locate, laser, tweeze, and cut out the problem. If the patient's vital signs should drop, simply fill a syringe with more gel, and give them a warm blast of life before continuing to work. When finished, sew the cut up with your needle and thread. Then wipe it with gel and place a bandage. Just like new.

The early stages feel very "medical": healing wounds, excising tumors, removing foreign objects. As the game progresses, however, the challenges begin to feel more arcade-like. A few puzzles, and abundant use of the laser to fight disease, make it clear that the designers ran short on "medical" ideas after a while. 

The graphics are, thankfully, unrealistic. The characters are all hand-drawn in anime style. The bodies and vital organs are rendered in three dimensions in soft, muted tones. There is little to no blood, and nobody ever dies. If a player fails a mission, a senior doctor simply takes over. Overall the game looks very nice.

Despite the few downfalls, Trauma Center Second Opinion is absolutely a game worth playing. It provides a surprisingly developed story with fun game mechanics that offer a glimpse of what is possible on the Wii. Hopefully, this game will usher in a new generation of medical simulators.

Bottom line? Rent it before buying it.

Sunday, October 5, 2008

Metal Gear Solid 4

If you've never played any Metal Gear Solid titles before this one, or if you just sampled a small morsel of the series, this game runs an incredibly high risk of tempting you to viciously spear your expensive DualShock 3 into your even more expensive PS3. And though that will considerably lower your electric bill, you might find yourself spending even more money for therapy soon thereafter. You will shake your fists and bellow at all the reviewers who drooled slobbery praise over this game and convinced you, an MGS dabbler, to purchase it.

There's a good reason for this. MGS is a series that has a dense and intricate story line that is intertwined throughout every iteration, and MGS 4 is the culmination of all the story lines, the One Sequel To Rule Them All. As such, this game was uncompromisingly crafted for MGS fans seeking closure and makes no effort to sacrifice this finality in a belated effort to attract new fans.

Imagine watching The Return of the King on the basis of it having won 11 Oscars - without actually having watched the other two LOTR films beforehand. That's pretty much how it is with this game. Sometimes a sequel is masterful not because it can stand alone, but because it completes a familiar fictional universe and your experience of it in ways that go above and beyond the call of duty.

Overall, the gameplay elements have been evolved magnificently. You can do, see, shoot, and sneak more than ever before. But even in this wealth of improvement, some things in particular stand out:

The guards, human and otherwise, have gotten much, much smarter (finally) and have formidable eyesight (finally). If you thought the new completely maneuverable camera would make intrusion too easy, think again. In earlier games, the fixed camera was compensated for by guards who, though not unintelligent, couldn't see farther than their own gun point. The new and improved guards not only work in squad synchronicity, but are blessed with much better senses, including a keen sense of smell. Did you hear that? They can smell you.

The fact you can choose sides in a shootout to exploit the situation gives the game a glorious amount of tactical elbow room. You can choose to ignore the conflicts, of course, but choosing sides makes some sections easier at the expense of making some sections more difficult. But above all, being encouraged to be a rabble-rouser of the worst kind is too hard to turn down. Deliberately making a mess of an already messy firefight is just too much fun to be legal, no matter how virtual it is.

SIXAXIS motion controls are for the most part gimmicky and extremely limited. Having only played a little of MGS4 in a local EBGames, I can say that I haven't spent a terrible amount of time with it, though. They're never mentioned in the manual either, leaving you to sleuth out if they even exist. You can tilt your controller to gently peek out from under a dumpster lid, shake to "clear" your octocamo and, supposedly, shake it to wake yourself up. In regards to this latter function, however, I've swung the controller around in every which way I could imagine (short of tying it to a string and swinging it around my head) and it didn't seem to make a difference.

It annoys me as well that Metal Gear has finally succumbed to the aggravating Light Fixture Anomaly, in which any source of light that is covered by a rudimentary grate or pane of glass is inexplicably invulnerable to projectiles of any kind. In a game where the mere act of walking runs the risk of shattering a clay vase or beer bottle, and car windows can be obliterated by a tranquilizer dart, I demand that a street lamp should snuff if I shoot it.

The amount of mandatory gameplay is fairly small, which is compounded by the length of the cutscenes. If you are a savvy gamer and are good at rushing economically through a level, you will at times find yourself wondering why the gameplay in-between the cut scenes is so short.
I heard there are 90 minutes of cut-scenes. MGS has always been infamous for its long cutscenes, but don’t worry. I’m sure you won’t end up watching a feature length film in the middle of your gameplay. *cough*

I'll give you a bottom line: if you haven't played all the MGS games before this one, don't play it. You'll be doing yourself and this game a great disservice. If you played some MGS games and could never get into them, stay away from this one, because it will not give you a change of heart. But if you have played MGS, then this game will be fun.

And just to be clear, I’m not telling anyone to go buy a PS3 just for this game. It’s not worth it when there isn’t anything else worth playing on the console.

Bottom line? Rent it.

Monday, September 29, 2008

The Most Overrated Game (Of All Time)

Halo. Everyone is familiar with this gaming phenomenon, and everyone seems to have nothing but praise for this apparently revolutionary shooter. It sells as if it had been forged by a limitless supply of solid gold and was blessed by the Pope himself. Master Chief has been carried up the sacred mountain of gaming by the critical community on perfect 10’s to stand alongside other and better legends like Link, Mario, and Sonic.

Halo is the most overrated and undeserving game series of all time.

Maybe it's because when I had heard that Microsoft was going to make a video game console, a significant portion of my heart turned black, never to regain its former luster. A computer company sticking with computers?—isn’t that just a old-fashioned concept? Maybe because the game is more mainstream than My Little Pony, and my games-are-art streak simply can’t handle that. Maybe that’s why I just can’t seem to bask in the alleged "glorious" Halo.

Or maybe it's because the game is more unbalanced than a cross-eyed toddler, offers no distinguishing features that separate it from the universes and capabilities of any other FPS (First Person Shooter for you n00bs), has a completely generic and unrewarding single player campaign, and boasts the most annoying and repulsive online community the world has ever seen.

Let me address some of the backlash I can already hear coming:

"Yeah, the single player isn't all that, but it's a multiplayer game and the multiplayer i5 4\/\/3z0/\/\3! XBOX Live roxs!”

First off, if it's a multiplayer game, then why did they bother with a single player campaign? Secondly, if the single player is mediocre at best, then why is the game getting perfect 10s!?

There's nothing innovative in Halo. Anything that Halo feels proud of has been done before, and often better. Dual wielding? Goldeneye 007 did it in special circumstances, and Perfect Dark did it standard. Master Chief? The whole taciturn hero thing has been done many times before with more memorable and interesting characters, and the only thing that keeps Master Chief from looking like every other space marine from Starcraft to Warhammer 40,000 is the fact that his power suit boasts a helmet with a cute little brim over the visor. Mixing up elements from previous distinguished games and then failing to improve these elements in any significant fashion does not make a game innovative.

I mean, really, what about Halo gameplay is so new and different? The weapons, though interesting designs, are never implemented in ways that are interesting or useful.

This brings me to the problem of game balance, which for me was the fatal flaw in Halo. After having played it a while back at my brother’s house, I came to realize that I wasn't losing so horrifically because I was a bad tactician or bad at shooters. I was losing for two reasons: 1) Somebody had a sniper rifle, and 2) bad respawns. Good Lord, does this series have some awful respawns! You don't even get a single measly second of invincibility to compensate for being placed right in death's merry path.

I remember playing Halo, dying, and then remaining out of the game for the next twenty seconds as I died six times in a row without being able to take more than three steps. Of course, the respawns wouldn't be so bad if it weren't for the blasted sniper rifles. If you've ever played Halo, you know how good the sniper rifles are. They're supposed to be ineffective at close range, but we all know that's a fib. Unlike any other good FPS, any weapon in Halo that isn't a sniper rifle, sticky grenade, or beam sword is worthless. Until you get your hands on any one of those three weapons, you might as well be running around furiously blowing bubbles.

The sniper rifle has absolutely no mitigating factors. Sniper rifles are supposed to bestow the benefits of long range and precision accuracy in exchange for high recoil, low rates of fire, small magazines, longer reload times, and complete uselessness at short range and in tight spaces.

Because of these facts, Halo's sniper rifle can be shot while running, jumping, or falling out of a vehicle from deadly heights, and in any of those situations can be fired at full zoom without suffering any penalty to accuracy. You could be spinning like a top and the bullets you fire will still go directly to the spot your crosshairs were pointing at the moment you pulled the trigger. These bullets can also ricochet twice and still have enough killing power for a one-hit kill.

Halo-Halo 3 are broken, and yet they still garner incredible critical acclaim. What they see in the Halo series, I have no idea. I don't need overpowered weapons blowing away heads made of cotton candy to make myself feel like a gamer.

Bottom line? Don’t buy. Don’t rent. Don't even look at it.

Being True vs. Being Right

Characters are funny things. I think just about any writer will tell you that there have been times when a character took on a life of his own and refused to do the things the writer planned. As the character develops, his personality develops until when the writer gets to the point where Harriet is supposed to marry Peter, the writer realizes that there is no way in hell Harriet would do such a thing. And then she has to write a half dozen more novels worth of character development to get them both down the aisle.

It's rewarding when this happens, because it means that the character has become more like a real person than simply a cardboard puppet for the author to manipulate; and that means that the character and the things that happen to him are more likely to be meaningful to the reader.

When my characters are obstinate and refuse to follow my elegantly-constructed plots, I generally let them have their head and adjust my story accordingly. I've got plenty of practice doing this running RPG's with my wife.

But sometimes I come across a related problem. What do you do when your character has opinions and beliefs that differ greatly from your own?

Usually it's not that big a deal. It's a common situation, after all. Imagining what it would be like to be a person other than yourself is pretty much a prerequisite for being any kind of a writer. If a character of mine has different political views or religious beliefs or moral outlook than my own, we can agree to disagree for the space of the story.

I will admit that sometimes I am not above mocking such a character and use my perogative as author to poke fun at his misconceptions. The biggest temptation of all is to convert the characters. Robert Heinlein once said that there were only three basic plots in fiction, one of which being "The Man Who Learned Better." Growth of understanding is what character development is all about; and what better way to develop the character than to have the story be about how the character learns that his former opinions were wrong and comes around to the Author's way of thinking.

Except... when you put it that way... Gee, that sounds awfully egotistical. And worse yet, it reduces the character back to being the cardboard puppet again, dancing for the author's amusement.

I'm not saying it can't be done, but to do it right, the writer needs to show the character's conversion developing naturally out of the character.

Arthur Conan Doyle was an ardent believer in Spiritualism, and once wrote a story in which his character the bombastic Professor Challenger has a dramatic encounter with the ghost of a former assistant which converts him to a belief in the afterlife. Doyle wrote no such story about Sherlock Holmes, in which the Great Detective renounces his skepticism about the supernatural. It would have out of character for him; it would have seemed contrived; it would have seemed false.

I was once is a similar situation many years ago. I was playing a character in a Victorian Era monster hunting game named J. Hamish Broadstead who was an arch-skeptic. He completely rejected the supernatural and had made it his life's mission to debunk fraudulent mediums. He was your stereotypical late-Victorian scientific materialist, and I admit, I played him as a pompous buffoon. After all, since there really were vampires and ghosts and such creatures in the campaign, his obstinate refusal to see this was a running gag.

I decided to draw a comic book "origin story" for my skeptic, explaining how he became so obsessive about debunking the supernatural. I framed it as a dream in which he is guided through his past by another of the characters, who was loosley based on the Phantom Stranger. ( "This isn't going to be like that wretched Dickens Christmas story, is it?" "I'm afraid so, Professor." "Can't stand Dickens. Always taking legitimate social concerns and sentimentalizing them." )

So, I had Broadstead's spirit guide show him selected scenes from his youth culminating in an incident where as a young man he exposes a fraudulent medium at a senance and the shock of the revelation causes his sickly, invalid sister to fall into a swoon. She dies shortly afterwards, and Broadstead blames the charlatan. Secretly, though, he harbors guilt at the thought that had he not unmasked the fraud, his sister might still be alive.

At that point in the story, I realized I needed to come up with some kind of resolution. There had to be some reason for Broadstead to relive his tragic past. I needed Broadstead to find Redemption.


I couldn't buy it. It just didn't seem right for Broadstead. I'm a Christian, and Redmption and Forgiveness are a big deal for me; but Broadstead was an athiest. Given his background and his personality, I could not picture him having a religious experience; it would not ring true. Even if he ever did have such an experience, he would almost certainly interpret it in purely materialistic terms.

So how would I respect Broadstead's character without seeming to validate a world-view I disagree with? How can I be right and stay true at the same time?

In this particular story, I had the spirit guide offer Broadstead the chance to speak with the ghost of his sister and resolve their issues. Her ghost appears behind him, arms outstretched and beckoning to him. But Broadstead banishes her with a grumpy "Poppycock!" without ever seeing she was there. He doesn't need anybody's help and he is perfectly capable of dealing with his own guilt issues by himself, thank you. Besides, if there is an afterlife -- which he does not for a moment concede -- then his sister certainly has better things to do than to come back here. To the end, Broadstead remains proud and self-sufficient and true to his personal philosophy and code. And yet... his sister was there, if only he would see her. And the story ends with him standing quitely by her grave. Praying? Pondering? Only he and God knows.

I'm not exactly sure if I succeeded in striking the balance I wanted in that story. I thought it worked pretty well at the time, and had some nice bits of dialogue; but in summarizing the plot, it seems rather weak. Sometimes a story works, sometimes it doesn't.

I'm in a similar situation again; I'm working on a story in which the central character is going through a crisis of faith. But I have to work out exactly what the character believes and how that will change through the challenge he's undergoing -- without being able to use my own beliefs. Having him convert to Lutheranism would just be too improbable, even if I could work a character into the story who could explain Justification by Faith to him.

No, I have to be true to the character; otherwise he'll come off as phoney. I have to find what aspects of my own beliefs he would understand and be open to, so that what he comes to believe flows and develops from who he is and what he knows.

This is the story I should be working on instead of writing this.

Ah well. Chewing through the problem has given me a couple ideas; and I'll work on it some more.

Friday, September 26, 2008

What happened to my MMORPG?

Frankly, anything that has a title so long that it has to be shortened like that is rather scary. I mean…the shortened version is almost as long as the regular version. So, what is happening with the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG for medium)?

They suck. That’s what’s happening. Stay with me folks. Most MMORPGs out there today suck. They’ll claim they don’t suck, but they do. They will also claim they have come a long way, but they haven’t, really.

Now, I don’t mind MMOGs, don’t get me wrong. It’s the MMORPGs that are just…wrong. But what exactly is wrong? Let’s start anywhere, anywhere at all…oh, how about magic? Magic systems in use in most fantasy-themed MMORPGs today are by and large the same magic systems pioneered by D&D games nearly two decades ago. There are flashier, prettier, and have some bells and whistles added on the side, but the way magic affects the characters and players within the games has remained exactly the same - it seems game developers have read a single fantasy book and never bothered with another one. Magic is offensive, defensive or utilitarian (make my rusty kettle shiny again). It's usually bound to a single magic meter of some kind (I wonder if Gandalf the Grey had one), and it doesn't interact with the environment.

Fire bolts fly into dry brush without so much as a spark and ice bolts leave green grass unperturbed. No one seems to want to bother to really explore things like complex interactions of multiple spells, creative ways of using defensive spells offensively and vice versa. No one is considering the possibility of using that shiny kettle spell on your shield to reflect fire bolts. No one is considering what actual sources of magic (other than the stupid MP bar!) it might be interesting to represent. How about directly using the environment to source magic power? Like drawing magic power for water related spells from lakes and streams, fire related spells from lava rocks and the sun, air spells from windy gullies…

How about we look at questing? The thing that is commonly referred to as “quests” in modern day MMORPGs is a shame upon the true meaning of the word. When exactly did running between towns carrying useless objects between useless NPCs has come to be known as a quest? That is a $3 an hour job for bicycled teenagers, not a quest. Neither is killing rabbits by the hundreds, or wolves by the dozen. No, not even Charr. Not a quest. Sorry.

What is a quest? A quest is an involved, perilous, unique adventure; an adventure, mind you, that is usually undertaken by a character because it is part of his own story, his place in the world, his belief system. NOT because he needs that 70 platinum for a new piece of armor he is saving up for. It's no wonder that so many of the older, more mature gaming demographic never stick with an MMORPG for too long: a world that defines your place in it by assigning you deliveries is not exactly something that people who look for more than just “hack and slash” in their gaming experience want to keep coming back to. World of Warcraft made a very tiny, but ultimately important step in the right direction in the area of questing - but very, very much more is truly needed.

Though, I am reminded of a story about how two people were going to have their wedding on WOW. Seems that a bunch of people who played orcs or goblins got wind of the wedding. While the ceremony was taking place, they trashed the wedding and killed everyone.

I really wish I could have seen that.

The fact of the matter is, proper “questing” could be implemented in any current MMORPGs without so much as a new line of code - all it would take is a dedicated, motivated community of players coupled with a little visionary leadership from those running the game. Literature is chock full wonderful adventures, intrigue, and mystery - core components of a true quest. I don’t want any more “trading sequences” in games.

The examination of the questing problem in particular leads us to a useful generalization, which is that the problems with the current batch of massively multiplayer RPGs lie with the very factors that are supposed to make MMOGs such a unique genre - massive-multiplayerism (this is now a word) and world persistence. Many of these games make such poor use of the massively multi-player aspect, they become, from the player interaction point of view, little more than glorified chat rooms augmented with rudimentary combat and item exchange. To make things worse, even this benefit usually comes at the price of greatly dumbed down gameplay mechanics as compared to most single-player PC RPGs. As a result, most serious RPG fans are better off with just a regular role-playing game.

Thursday, September 18, 2008

What is it about that girl?

You know who I'm talking about.

Hannah Montana. I'd say she qualifies as "popular culture" right now. What is it that makes people go crazy over her? Why must her face be plastered on EVERY OTHER THING in Wal-Mart? I'm serious, people, she's everywhere. And the only reason is because of her father! She sings okay, but not enough to have her face on everything! Okay...before this turns into a rant, let's get started....

Why is she so popular? I asked myself this profound (sure, Brynna) question while stocking some of her wigs/purses/jeans/skirts the other night at good ol' Wally World.

And I think I know the answer. Well, at least part of it anyway.

The whole premise behind the Hannah Montana show is that Miley Cyrus has this "secret star life" where she's this great singer. I've never actually seen the show myself, but I know the basics. No one knows she's Hannah. She's just Miley at home.

And that's the beauty of the idea. That's why it works so well. That's why girls from -9 to 15 love her.

She has a secret life. Where she's this famous person. Who wouldn't want that? In every girl's mind, she wants to have a secret life like Miley Cyrus. Where they are famous and loved. Instead of the same old stuff everyday.

But a deeper thing is also in Hannah Montana. I know, I just used the word "deep" to describe a part of a show on the Disney Anyway, the deeper thing is this.

Almost everyone has a secret life. The stuff you don't tell anyone. The stuff you want to keep to yourself because you're either embarrassed about or people won't understand why you like to do certain things (mundanes anyone?). So, Hannah relates to the teens who have that "secret" lifestyle.

What do you guys think?

Saturday, September 13, 2008

The Mighty Mythopoeic Manner

Recently I read an essay by C.S. Lewis on the 19th Century fantasy writer George MacDonald. Lewis was a great admirer of MacDonald’s and was deeply influenced by him. He said that reading MacDonald’s Phantasies as a young man “baptized my imagination”.

“I have never concealed the fact that I regard MacDonald as my master, indeed I fancy I have never written a book in which I did not quote from him.”

But Lewis also admits, somewhat defensively, that MacDonald is not a terribly good writer.

“If we define Literature as an art whose medium is words, then certainly MacDonald has no place in its first rank -- perhaps not even in its second. There are indeed passages where the wisdom and (I would dare to call it) the holiness that are in him triumph over and even burn away the baser elements in his style: the expression becomes precise, weighty, economic, acquires a cutting edge. But he does not maintain this level for long. The texture of his writing as a whole is undistinguished, at times fumbling.”

Literary critics have made the same charge against Lewis’ friend, J.R.R. Tolkien, and against Lewis himself and against many authors of fantasy: “Yes, but they’re not good writers!”

(If you want to start a fight some time, just mention Harry Potter in a room full of lit teachers).

To which Lewis counters, “What he [MacDonald] does best is fantasy -- fantasy that hovers between the allegorical and the mythopoeic.”

The term “mythopoeia” comes from the Greek and refers to the process of creating myths. Tolkien was fond of the word and used it as a title of a lengthy poem he wrote to Lewis early in their friendship defending the practice of myth-making.

Lewis had a deep, abiding love of myth, especially the Germanic and Scandinavian myths that he associated with “northerness”. They contained a mysterious quality which stirred something deep inside him, something he called “Joy”. It was his own search for “Joy” and his attempts to analyze and understand it that, by his own account, led him back to Christianity.

Here, in his essay, Lewis is not just talking about inventing gods and artificial cosmologies; he uses “mythopoeia” to refer to a story which moves the audience in the same way that our ancestors, and sometimes we ourselves, are moved by a myth. To use Joseph Campbell’s phrase, it’s a modern story which conveys the Power of Myth.

“We all agree that the story of Balder is a great myth, a thing of inexhaustible value. But of whose version -- whose words -- are we thinking when we say this?

For my own part, the answer is that I am not thinking of any one’s words. No poet, as far as I know or can remember has told this story supremely well. … What really delights me is a particular pattern of events, which would equally delight and nourish if it had reached me by some medium which involved no words at all -- a mime or silent film. And I find this to be true of all such stories.”

Lewis vindicates MacDonald by raising the Plot and the inventiveness thereof over the Prose by which that plot is conveyed.

“In a myth -- in a story where the mere pattern of events is all that matters … any means of communication whatever which succeeds in lodging those events in our imagination has, as we say, ‘done the trick.’ … To be sure, if the means of communication are words, it is desirable that they be well-chosen, just as ot is desirable that a letter which brings you important news should be fairly written. But this is only a minor convenience, for the letter will, in any case, go in the waste paper basket as soon as you have mastered the contents and the words … are going to be forgotten as soon as you have mastered the Myth."

He goes on with an example.

"Of this I had evidence some years ago when I first heard the story of Kafka’s Castle related in conversation and afterwards read the book for myself. The reading added nothing. I had already received the myth, which was all that mattered."

I know of writers who would object strongly to this point of view. After all, writers live by their words; ideas are a dime a dozen by the writing is what puts money on the table. And arguing Plot versus Prose completely overlooks Characterization, which in my book is just as important as the other two. But to be fair, Lewis is talking solely about Myth.

But the essay made me think about what our modern myths are:

The last son of a dying planet is sent by his parents to Earth where he uses his extraordinary powers in a never-ending battle for truth, justice and the American way.

A child watches his parents be gunned down by a thief and vows to dedicate his life obliterating crime; and since criminals are a superstitious, cowardly lot, he strikes fear into them in the guise of a giant bat.

A geeky, gawky adolescent gains amazing abilities as the result of a lab accident. When his early attempts to use his abilities for personal gain leads to tragedy, he learns that with great power must also come great responsibility.

None of these stories may be great literature; but they are great myths. They lie in our cultural DNA along with Jason and Hercules and Robin Hood and Tarzan; they have a quality which resonates in our popular imagination.

Which is what good myths do.

Thursday, September 11, 2008

Assassin’s Creed

Oh Middle Ages, you were ever so fun. What with the plagues, wars, and shoddy science, it's a wonder anyone survived to tell us about the good ol' days. In the world according to Assassin's Creed ye olde times went something like this... Assassin's good, Crusaders bad, people who want power for the sake of power very bad. And so, with that premise in mind we jump into the world of death and mystery that is the Middle East: 1191 A.D.

The story of Assassin's Creed is a sort of sci-fi conspiracy tale mixed with revisionist history. While you play the game as Altair, a disgraced assassin, you are really only reliving his memories through Desmond Miles, his present-day descendant. Your job is to assassinate a particularly important Crusader, a close advisor to King Richard. Altair, being a cocky guy, saunters right up to the fellow and tries to poke him in the eye. Sadly, Mr. White-Christian-Knight-Who-Says-Ni doesn't take too kindly to this, and a fight breaks out. Returning to his master in shame, Altair is stripped of his rank and sent on nine separate missions in order to reclaim his honor.

As Altair and Desmond get closer to figuring out what exactly is going on, the story starts to draw you in, but then it spits you back out again. Violently. While your original assassination targets turn out to be rather complex individuals who may not really deserve their sudden deaths, later targets revert to being power-hungry, schizophrenic jerks who deserve what's coming to them. Also, the "modern day" storyline doesn't really pay off either, as the game ends not with a big reveal or a cliffhanger, but just a rather boring conversation and some non-helpful information. It feels like the developers were getting ready to finish the game, but just before they could get to it some well-meaning but inept intern took the disc off and it went gold before they could stop it.

Before Altair can perform his deadly duties, he must gather information on his target. You see, to an assassin knowledge is power. If you told kids that if they paid attention in school they might get to stab people in the neck for a living then you'd solve the education crisis overnight.

Info gathering includes interrogating and roughing up familiars of the person you're hunting, eavesdropping on conversations, working with informants to get juicy details, and pick-pocketing locals with valuable maps. You can also climb up really tall buildings to get a lay of the land, as well as rescue citizens from bullying guards in return for help escaping later on when you're being chased.

For the first few missions you'll be having so much fun with these tasks that you'll likely take care of every little objective dot on your map just so you can get the full experience. And then, around the fourth or fifth mission though, a sad reality will sink in: you're doing the EXACT same thing over, and over, and over again. There are no missions where you can choose one investigative path over another, and the levels play out the same way every single time. Ultimately, the game suffers one of the worst fates imaginable, as it eventually becomes just plain boring.

The title's control system is very ambitious, perhaps even too much so for its own good. Each face button controls a different body part, with your head, legs, and each arm being assigned a specific place. It sounds complicated, but it's really not too bad, and it won't take any time at all before you're squeezing through crowds, running from guards, and engaging in fancy swordfights.

Where things fall apart, however, is in the "free run" mode, especially when Altair is being chased. You see, normally you stay in "low profile," a mode in which Altair walks slowly, gently pushes people out of his way, and generally does whatever he can to keep from drawing attention to himself. As long as you are being courteous, guards are unlikely to attack you, and you can come and go pretty much as you please.

Things take a turn for the worst in "high profile," however, which is the mode which you must use to pull of Altair's attacks and more impressive acrobatic maneuvers. Things get downright impossible when you are trying to escape from a gaggle of guards and every move counts. Oftentimes as you're sprinting from danger you'll accidentally run up a wall or grab-leap onto a ledge you didn't mean to snag, costing you precious time and usually allowing soldiers to get in a few cheap shots. Ultimately, the controls are functional, but far from perfect.

Aside from the issues already mentioned, there are several more gripes to be had with this title. Firstly, the voice acting for Altair is terrible. Most of his lines are delivered in a somewhat robotic tone that make him sound either hypnotized or deeply under the influence of something. It really stands out because the rest of the voice crew does a very fine job, which begs the question of how his character could be so botched.

Bottom line? Rent. Don’t buy.

Sunday, September 7, 2008

A view of popular culture from the retail perspective, Comics Part II

James Robert (Bob) Smith was a comics retailer for over 20 years. He had shops in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Today, he is completely out of the comics industry and works for the US Postal Service in Charlotte, North Carolina. He is a published author with dozens of short story sales, two novel sales, and one movie option sale. He has a website at: JamesRobertSmith.Net and a blog at Til The Last Hemlock Dies.

Russ Stewart was a comics retailer for almost 6 years. He ran a store in Duluth Minnesota. He was also a city councilman, a college professor, and my best friend. He is still a couple of those things. He is currently on sabbatical and will return in Spring to his main job, teaching ethics and logic to people at Lake Superior College.
What made you go into the comics business to begin with?

James Robert Smith: I fell into it, actually. My dad had owned several used bookshops in Georgia and Tennessee. Over the years he accumulated about a quarter of a million back issues. Prime stuff, too, since he started buying used books and old comics in 1965. So the bulk of the stuff he had was Silver Age and later Golden Age. By the time I opened my own shop I had inherited his vast stock of old comics which formed the basis of my own retail business. Then I fell into the sales of new comics when I was around in the early days of direct sales. Over time, most of my sales went to new comics and less and less of my total figures were generated by back issues.

Russell R. Stewart: I've always had a love of bookstores, comic shops, game shops, etc., you know, the fun, eclectic places that have a one of a kind feel to them. I've also worked in a couple different bookstores, so I knew something of the business. Finally, I wanted to create the kind of place that I wish I'd had when I was a kid. Growing up in a small Minnesota town left me only with the local dime store or drug store, which had little of interest to my thirsty mind. So I thought about the kind of place would have wanted to go to when I was, say, 15 years old, and that's what I tried to create.

What were some of the surprises you experienced when you got into the work of retailing comics?

JRS: Hmm... Surprises. None, really. Maybe, in the early days, the sheer sales numbers generated from direct sales comics. Even when most of my sales were in new comics, I still preferred back issues. It was back issue sales that had the most appeal for me. And when you own a retail store that buys and sells old comics, you will generally have about three or four great collections walk through the door every year. Really nice stuff that makes your heart beat faster and your blood pressure rise. The smell of pulp was addictive and the one thing that I miss about retailing are those three or four wonderful back issue discoveries that I would make each year.

RRS: The biggest and most unfortunate surprise was the discovery of a couple of major bookkeeping errors in my first year of business. This set me way back financially and left me in a scramble that I never really got out of. Other than that, I guess I was surprised by the passion that the customers have both about the products and about the store. It was tough to keep them from badmouthing the competition (another local store that we had a good relationship with) or games or comics they didn't like. The Warhammer players and the Magic players seemed like they were in an endless feud. For a place to go to have fun, a small number of people just liked to go their to demonstrate their superiority.

On the other hand, we also had a surprising number of great customers who put in a ton of volunteer hours in the game room. They went way beyond the call of duty on several occasions. One time they painted the whole game room because they knew that I didn't have the time to do it. They even bought the paint!

What are some of the sources of frustration for a person selling comics?

JRS: Well, since I'm very happily not in retail sales anymore, there are no current frustrations from that sector for me. In the last days of retailing, my greatest single frustration was the monopoly that Steve Geppi made of the business. It's very unhealthy for one distributor to control the entire direct sales business. That's too much power in the hands of a single entitiy and I'm convinced that Diamond Comic Distributors is a monopoly that should be shattered and scattered. Nothing good can come of all of that wholesale power in the hands of a single company. Well, nothing good for customers and retailers. Much good for Herr Geppi.

RRS: The biggest frustration was dealing with the monthly comics. With a small store like I had, it was almost impossible to order with any kind of consistency. One month we'd sell through a title, so the next month we'd order more only to find that we'd sell only one or two copies. Once a monthly is on the rack for 90 days, it is dead wood. And of course very little was returnable. That gets expensive and kills cash flow, which is the life blood of a retail store.

On many occasions I considered cutting out monthlies altogether, instead stocking graphic novels in greater depth. In retrospect, I wish I had done that. I think my cash flow would have been a lot better. The shelf-life of a graphic novel is much longer than a monthly. I guess I was afraid of upsetting my base of monthly subscribers. In truth, I wasn't making money on them anyway. I was always too nice to the subscribers, allowing them to build up “holds” in excess of 100 comics. Again, that's dead wood. And often they would decide (typically after 3-4 months) that they didn't really want half of them anyway.

If I had just gone graphic-novel only from the beginning, I think I'd be rolling in dough today!

What did you do to try to modify the system to your own needs?

JRS: Hmm ... Like most retail comic shops I ran an in-store subscription service. It worked well for years, until the comic book implosion of the early 90s. When sales of new comics began to slide precipitiously I had been finding my way into the sales of other collectibles, most notably collectible toys. Honestly, Star Wars toys and Mego figures kept my last store going for about five years!
RRS: I'm not really sure that “the system” can really be modified by the retailer. At least not by isolated, small retailers. A large chain might be able to command enough market share to make some substantive changes in the distribution system.

What role did Diamond play in your business success and then business failure?

JRS: Pardon my French, but Diamond sucks ass. I have nothing good to say about that monopoly, and anything else that I could add might get me into trouble with that corporate mosnter. That said, they weren't the only reason for the collapse of comic book sales. One experience I vividly recall is this:
I had an entire family who read comics and spent a LOT of money in my shop. (This was toward the end of my retailing experience, in the mid-90s.) Every week they would stop in and pick up their in-store subscriptions, routinely spending, collectively, anywhere from $50 to $100 every Thursday or Friday, sometimes waiting until Saturday to get their books. Well, one week they didn't show. Then a second week passed and they didn't show. Third week, no family. Since they got a LOT of books, their holds were piling up. Finally, one day the mother called and cancelled the subscriptions. All of them. Alas. One day, a couple of months later I happened to bump into them in a mall. They were very friendly and we sat and talked for a bit. I finally asked them why they didn't buy comics any more. The answer:
Video games. The money that they were once spending on comics they were now spending on video games.
"Why read about Spider-Man when you can actually be Spider-Man?" the mother asked me.
Why, indeed.

RRS: Diamond is a horrible company to deal with. They have a monopoly on the monthly comic market because they have exclusive distribution rights for all the major publishers, including Marvel, DC, Image, and Dark Horse. This means that if you want to sell monthlies, you have to go through Diamond.

And the system places all the risk on the retailers. Diamond solicits comics before they are printed, and they report their order numbers to the publishers. So Diamond knows they'll sell all the stock that they get from the publishers, because it's all been pre-ordered by retailers. The publishers also know that they'll sell all that they print because it's all been pre-ordered by Diamond. The only one in the chain who doesn't have guaranteed sales is the retailer. So the retailer takes all the financial risk while the publishers & distributors take none. It's definitely a flawed system.

It is possible to order graphic novels, games, and novelty products from other venders, but Diamond's discount policy makes it very costly to do so. They give a bigger discount when you order more product from them. Since a comic dealer has to order monthlies from them, it is pretty foolish not to order your other stuff from them as well in order to enhance your discount. It is a real racket.

This is another reason that I should have only sold graphic novels from the beginning. I would have had a much greater choice of vendors, and I would have had much better control over cash flow.

The reason cash flow would have been better without Diamond and without monthlies is simply this: if you sell monthlies, you get a weekly shipment from Diamond 52 weeks per year. They're all pre-ordered months in advance, and you can't stop them. Your customers expect them on Wednesday.

This is can be a real problem for cash flow, because if sales are slow you want to slow the orders, but with Diamond, you're pre-ordering so far in advance that it is virtually impossible to be responsive to fluctuations in the market. Sometimes we'd have to skip a weekly game order so that we could pay for our comic shipment, even though the games would have sold better and been more profitable.

I'm getting frustrated writing this! In retrospect, selling monthlies really looks idiotic. I'm trying to imagine what I was thinking at the time, and I'd have to say I was engaged in some serious self-deception. I kept thinking “ things will turn around.” They just never did, and I was unwilling to make the only decision that could have saved my business: stop selling monthlies.

What would you suggest could be changed to make the system work?

JRS: I think I already mentioned shattering and scattering Diamond. Plus leveling some massive fines on the major investors and owners of that corporation. Squeeze them dry. If there were a number of competitiors in the field of direct sales, it certainly couldn't hurt, and would likely lead to a diversification of the comics industry. More companies, more genres, more creators. Just my opinion, but I'm convinced I'm right.

RRS: The comic business needs to remake itself in the image of the book business. When I buy a novel, I don't buy a chapter at a time, I buy it all at once. It should be no different with comics. I think the stand-alone comic shop will largely die out in the next decade or two. The reason is that as the graphic novel industry matures and becomes more like the book industry, major book retailers will more fully stock graphic novels. This is already occurring. Big chain bookstores can sell graphic novels at their discounted prices and still make money because of their sales volume. And notice that they don't sell monthly comics!

The other reason the stand-alone comic business can't really survive is the difficulty of selling back issues. Once upon a time, if you wanted to read a story arc from a few years back you had to scour comic shops for back issues. Now you can either pick up a graphic novel or buy the whole run on eBay for a fraction of their cover prices. And of course you'll probably buy the graphic novel from a bookstore. That leaves the stand alone comic store selling back issues on eBay for pennies on the dollar. This is not a good business model.

So in the long run, as high quality graphic novels continue to be produced, more bookstores will expand into this product area. I think this will be good for the industry, and bad for the stand alone stores.

Knowing what you know now, what would you do differently?

JRS: Well, there's nothing I could do, really, to have stopped Diamond Comics Distributors from becoming a monopoly. And, yes, it's my considered belief that the Diamond monopoly was probably the single greatest cause of the comic book implosion of the 90s. Yes, you can lay some of the blame on comic speculators from the card hobby, but far worse than that was the collapse of the direct sales distribution system into the hands of a single man. I think there was a very brief moment when a handful of the most influential comics creators and publishers could have made a stand and ensured that there would still be a number of distributors. But none of those people and companies had either the courage or foresight to put a stop to that hideous occurance. Diamond absorbed everyone else, and there you have it. Probably the worst single thing that ever happened to the industry. Frankly, because of that, I'm glad to be out of comics retailing. I try not to put any money into the hands of Steve Geppi.

RRS: I think I've already spelled that out: Don't sell monthlies.
How did downloading of comics from the web affect your business?
JRS: I was gone well before that happened.

RRS: I don't think this had a noticeable affect, but I think over the next few years this will be the preferred way to get serialized stories. It is the ultimate in low production costs. The trick is to get people to pay for things like this!

Everyone knows that retail stores deal with theft, it is an unpleasantly common occurence, did your store deal a lot with that and to what extent did it affect your success or failure?

JRS: Yes, there was always theft. Some theft hurt. Store break-ins were the worst, but insurance kept that from being too hideous a problem. Petty theft bothered me, but never threatened my retail existence. In addition, I had the reputation for physically beating the shit out of folk that I caught in the act of stealing. Any adult I caught stealing got my foot up their ass. And, no, I'm not kidding. Any kid I caught stealing got carted off by the cops.

RRS: Stealing was a huge problem, both with customers and employees. I'd recommend installing a good security system right away. I never really had a good system, and yet I still caught people stealing literally hundreds of dollars worth of product. I hate to think about how much just walked out the door. This is another advantage that online retailers have. It's hard to shoplift on the internet.

The most painful thing was catching friends stealing. I hired a buddy part time. This guy was in my weekly RPG group, and I considered him to be good friend. Well, my manager told me he thought my friend was stealing. I was pretty skeptical, but when confronted with the evidence, I had to admit it was happening. I had my manager fire him because I just couldn't bring myself to do it. The guy called me up right away with a bunch of BS excuses. I basically told him how disappointed I was. We also kicked him out of my game group.
What would you like to do now in the world of comics if anything?

JRS: I still make pitches to various comics publishers from time to time (I'm a published author and I have an abiding love of comics). I have a certain amount of disposable income that I like to spend on back issues that mean a lot to me. I've almost completed a run of all of the Ditko-created issues of The Amazing Spider-Man. I buy other back issues from time to time. Purely reading copies. No investment grade stuff for me. I like to read them, and I let other people read my old comics, too.

RRS: I still love the comics medium and I'm interested in scripting a story. I've got a plot kicking around in my head. I'm studying the comic greats to learn about pacing, dialogue, layout, etc. I'm going to script out a few issues and then try to hunt up a penciler. Who knows where it will go? I'm excited to give it my best shot and see what happens.

Tuesday, September 2, 2008


(Images here are not meant to challenge any ownership or copyrights and are intended solely as fair use.)

Media and culture shape perceptions. There are heroic images caught on camera, and there are tragic ones. Heroic images remind us of why we fight, or go to war, the tragic images remind us of the cost. Some people, rightly or wrongly, have argued that modern wars are now fought on the domestic front by media presentation of the war, the Government’s control of images produced by the war, and the perceptions that arise from the release of those images.

Popular culture does not create the images, but perceptions are planted and grown by seeing the images. There are moments in history that are not related to war or tragic event that are caught on film, and they are generally awe striking. But while they are rightly remembered, it is the photos that strike at the heart of our discontent and fears that change the world.

When the Abu Ghraib scandal broke, it was almost surely fueled by the photographs that captured the emotional abuse and humiliation. When photos came back from Vietnam of a monk burning in protest and the wife of the South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem calling it a sort of human barbecue, Americans were shocked, and horrified.

Popular culture is woven from many strands, images that burn into our collective memory are one strand of that tapestry.

Tuesday, August 26, 2008



When Dark Horse Comics sent me a package of Conan and assorted books to review, I was in a place that was very difficult. Not for what they’d sent but for the fact that I was writing a long article, and wanted to review fantasy heroes and they were kind enough to send me some things to review in that vein, and then I nearly died, ... THREE TIMES. My appendix blew, I had two massive infections, and all my work began to overflow, since my schedule and life had been turned upside down. And I gave up on the very long article in the midst of one of the infections because I couldn’t think straight. 3000 words of musings about fantasy as a genre shot to hell. So when the new Conan series began I decided to buy them and review them to say thanks to Dark Horse and to catch on to what they were going to do, with a new #1.

So with the solicit information below this, I want to say that Timothy Truman is very much the writer of Conan that RE Howard would have wished to adapt his work. Conan is not a mindless barbaric warrior. He is not an ape with a sword. He does not dance about issues, he is a plain speaker and desires nothing more from others. In these issues Truman never once makes Conan say something that I couldn’t see REH writing himself. The art is quite good, but perhaps less to my taste as Truman’s writing. But that is irrelevant. Altogether the two comics (three if you include the variant cover) were well done and worthy of the new numbering. Which begs the question, why start over with a new number one? In today’s market we are flooded with comics that start but get canceled or are lost in the mists of diamond’s system. Number one issues are easy sellers, but when there is no real difference in tone or talent, why do it? Ultimately the work deserves attention, and if new numbering works, go for it. I could read Truman’s Conan in mini series, regular series, prestige series, limited prestige series, maxi series and more. Frankly he gets it. He truly gets it. And I love that.


Conan the Cimmerian #0
Writer: Timothy Truman
Penciler: Tomàs Giorello
Colorist José Villarrubia
Cover Artist: Tomàs Giorello

“Conan the Cimmerian #0 marks a transitional period in young Conan's life, as he spurns the magicians, turncoats, and legal trappings of the cities he's seen in order to return to the beloved northern frontiers of Cimmeria, where he was born and raised. It also marks a turning point in the artistic muscle that will fuel Conan's adventures throughout 2008 and beyond.”

Conan the Cimmerian #1
Writer: Timothy Truman
Penciler: Tomàs Giorello, Richard Corben
Inker: Richard Corben
Colorist Jose Villarrubia
Cover Artist: Frank Cho
Cover Artist: Joe Kubert

“Conan home with a crack to the head, and another begins to weave a tale about Conan's grandfather--another Cimmerian who was filled with wanderlust.”

Friday, August 22, 2008

Super Smash Brothers Brawl

At last, we can now know who would win between Pitt and Charizard.
When the original Super Smash Bros. was released for the N64 (Nintendo 64 for all you people who have been under a rock), some dismissed it as Nintendo’s attempt to cash in on the fighting game craze that was sweeping the video game community at the time. When I first played it, I enjoyed the crossover aspect and simple fighting mechanics. Then, years later when the first whiff of the GameCube crossed my path, I heard about Super Smash Bros. Melee.
See, Nintendo had discovered the true potential of the Smash Bros. series. From twelve characters to choose from to twenty-six, the game had beefed up considerably. And since Super Smash Bros. Melee was the best selling Gamecube game by a wide margin, the big N knew what it needed with a sequel.
Anyone who has played either of the two previous Smash Bros. will be immediately comfortable with the basic gameplay in Brawl. Up to four characters are dropped into an arena modeled after a particular Nintendo location, at which point they all begin wailing on each other in an attempt to knock one another off the sides, top, or bottom of the screen (resulting in constant glorious mayhem). As a character is struck his or her percentage counter, located at the bottom of the screen, begins to accumulate. The higher the percentage the more easily that character is knocked around. At 15% a character will hold his ground like a hardened warrior, but at say, 150%, even the lightest of taps will send him flying across the screen.
And for you non-N fans (shame on you), you’ve actually been included this time. As I'm sure you know by now, both Konami's Solid Snake, and one time Nintendo archrival Sonic the Hedgehog are both playable in Brawl. This opens up some very interesting possibilities that I'll get into later, but suffice to say both characters have appropriate fighting styles and fit in well with the rest of the cast.
While the number of playable characters hasn’t increased by much from Melee, Nintendo has thrown in a new feature called Assist Trophies. Assist Trophies are items that drop randomly throughout matches and, much like Pokeballs, can be broken open to release a character that will usually aid his liberator. However, unlike Pokeballs, Assist Trophies summon a random character from the entire Nintendo universe.

Another thing Brawl has is the new adventure mode, called Subspace Emissary. And, it actually has a pretty cool storyline to it! The player controls the Nintendo heroes as they adventure across a series of simple platformer levels attempting to repel the invaders and discover the reason they are being attacked, all the while joining forces with or battling against the other playable characters. Despite the fact that the game isn't quite designed to be played as a platformer, overall it's a fun little romp, and there are some distinctly hilarious moments when various Nintendo characters from drastically disparate series meet. Seeing Samus and Pikachu charging down a corridor blasting the crap out of everything in site, as well as Link and Yoshi in the same screen as each other are two memories I won’t forget soon.

And of course no Smash Bros. fan service feast would be complete without the beloved trophies. Once again there are several hundred to collect either via meeting specific conditions, picking them up in Subspace Emissary, or using your accumulated coins to shoot them in a weird little Missile Command-esque shooting game.
Perhaps the most exciting piece of fan service, though, is the soundtrack. Brawl's soundtrack is a monster, with well over two hundred tracks taken from dozens of different Nintendo titles. Many of them have been remixed or given an orchestral twist by famous game music composers, and it's a real treat to hear them blaring out in the heat of battle. However, at the start of the game you don't have access to the entire soundtrack, and in order to accumulate more tunes you have to pick up dropped CDs in essentially the same manner as trophies and stickers. Trust me, it's worth it.

All in all, the Smash Bros. series helpfully reminds you that your interests haven’t changed since you were ten. Everyone still likes beating up characters, but when you add the fact that they are Nintendo characters, it becomes a complete and pure joy to play.
Bottom line? Buy this game. Now.

And who doesn't want to hear this when they fire up the game? This is just way too freakin' cool:

Tuesday, August 19, 2008




Joshua Dysart, Will Conrad

“Conan has won the throne of Aquilonia and the hand of the beautiful Zenobia. With a kingdom to rule and an heir on the way, will the Cimmerian finally put up his sword for good? Don't bet on it. When his bride and country are attacked by a sinister Stygian sorcerer, Conan strikes back at Stygia with all his might - and the might of Aquilonia - in a move that threatens to throw all Hyboria into chaos!”

This is an old Conan we are seeing, and it is very cool to see an angry, old crusty King who faces a hated sorcerer again, and has to be ruthless. Joshua Dysart is about as wonderful to chat as I know in the industry, his work runs the gauntlet between dark and playful, violent and serene. This work is one where I just adored what I was seeing, even if I was not sure it was what Robert E. Howard might have done with his character. For example, while this is supposedly an older and settled in life Conan, he is much less wise than normal. However, while this Conan seems more rash than most depictions, at least in his reactions and decisions, I think an old Conan fighting his eternal source of anger, his traditional enemy, SORCERERS is great fun. He travels across territories, leaves his own homeland open to invasion, all to avenge himself against a single sorcerer. The eldritch witchcraft and unholy God, reminded me that this book felt also darker and gloomier in some manner similar to Howard’s work in the Cthulhu mythos, violent and without hope in many ways. There is very little here to not recommend, the art is good, moody and strikes a tone that is perfect for the story. The writing is very good. Altogether while slightly imperfect, this is a book I liked, and am grateful to have read it for review.

Friday, August 15, 2008

Pirates: At World’s End

It is a well known fact that any big budget movie that rakes in the cash at the box-office will soon be followed by a video game version that will strive to grab even more money off of us crazy, gibbering, wild-eyed consumers. Unfortunately, these movie-to-game conversions are always crap. Nearly.

So along came the Pirates of the Caribbean movies, a series of films that started out great, finished off merely okay, but, most importantly, ran off with so much loot from viewers that it would make Captain Jack Sparrow himself cry tears of joy into his bottle of rum. The video games to follow were inevitable, and now here we are already up to the game based on the last of the initial (sigh) Pirate movies, "At World's End".

If you were ever to compile a list of the greatest movie-based games ever, At World's End wouldn't even be fit to glimpse the very end of such a list.

Even though the game is titled "At World's End", the story starts from the beginning of the second movie and goes through to the end of the third; so in other words, you have to suffer through the events of two movies. Oh joy. If you've seen the movies you already know the plot of the game, but that doesn't mean you still won't get confused after watching all the disjointed cut scenes. For instance, in the first level you control Jack, and have to escape from prison. Then, for the second level, you suddenly find yourself playing as Will Turner, and you watch a scene that shows him rescuing Jack from being roasted over a fire.

Soon things will make about as much sense to you as a random episode of the appropriately-named Lost.
The gameplay consists of controlling Jack, Will, Barbosa, or Elizabeth and moving them through various locations from the movie, battling opponents, smashing open the odd crate and doing occasional side quests. For some reason, characters can't jump, and I am fairly confident in the thought that the decision to keep the character grounded was made solely to keep the player firmly in the level's confines, and save on time needed to design additional barriers to keep people from trying to actually explore the game world.

I had heard that the sword fighting was meant to be easy, but the A.I. I fought seemed to be firmly on to the fact that I was trying to finish the game as quickly as possible to get it over with, and constantly blocked just about all of my attacks. If that wasn't bad enough, my enemies sported an extremely nasty habit of jumping in at any opportunity to stab me through the chest while I was busy dueling with someone else or trying to operate some lever. Why couldn't they act like they do in all sword fighting movies, where they all stand back and simply watch as the hero duels with another enemy one-on-one?! And please don't tell me that this is where developers felt they needed to reflect the realism of pirate life! This is from the people who created the jump-less pirate?! YEAH.
The only thing worse than playing a bad game is playing a bad game that kicks your butt unfairly, and here Pirates delivers in spades.

Lazy development abounds, with a lot of key scenes from the movie absent, and other scenes taking cheap "reduce the animation" excuses, like showing your ship sailing away with character's voices played over it. Even when you finish the game (and then shout a whoop of joy and do cartwheels around the room), the lazy developers simply paste the credits over the screen you see when you're at the main menu!

Perhaps the greatest parts of the game lie in the "Jackanisms", which are scenes that play out where you have to press a button on the controller when prompted, and if you get it right you see some great displays of sword play and aerobatics. It's ironic, though, that the best part of the game is that which you don't have much control over.

If you're reading this review and still want to go buy the game, then go ahead, with my blessings. Just promise me you'll at least try not to buy the game at full price - for that truly is piracy - and I'll promise to keep your secret for 3 days. That ought be long enough to drive you back to the store, whimpering, to return it.

Bottom line? Don’t buy. Don’t rent. Avoid.


The underpinnings of Culture (and popular culture in particular) are often found in the myths that linger in the memory of the people. The reasons for this are rather complex, because when you consider all the factors that contribute the past should not act so much as an anchor for the present, but it does. The truth is a factory worker needs to know very little history or arts or politics to do his work. A chef needs to know the world of cuisine, but beyond that has little “need” of cultural literacy. The point is that it seems to be of little importance to know of the past, to be aware of the culture surrounding you, but the culture functions upon the memory of things.

I am not of Scottish descent but my wife’s family is, and their last name is Wallace, and that name has a legacy surrounding it that is a very vital part of the mythic memories of the nation of Scotland. Yes the nation of Scotland, because, due to a nationalist fever sparked by Braveheart the motion picture starring Mel Gibson, people in Scotland have moved slowly but steadily towards reimaging their nation of people into a true nation, apart from English sensibilities. The movie, however flawed factually, recounts the rise against Edward II, Longshanks by the Scots, as led by rebel and knight Sir William Wallace. It is, like many stories, based upon legends, but also upon historical records. Some of the movie is particularly egregious regarding historical fact. Mel Gibson had neither the famed red hair of the Wallace, nor was he nearly as tall as Wallace, who is likely to be the 6’7” of historical record due to the many references to his being able to wield a two handed Claymore sword ONE handed. Nobody could do this without great strength and truly, the leverage of being tall. But this and many other flaws did not prevent the story told from being emotionally moving, and stirring of a patriot’s heart in Scotland itself. The movie captured the moment in as much as it reminded the Scots of who they were and where they came from.

(1)Some evidence of the treatment of fact

Now, it is fair to suggest that the movie only inflamed existent emotions, but that does not argue against what I am suggesting, that popular culture mirrors our distant memories, even when we might not be aware of that. And aside from the factual errors the movie was brilliantly made, performed and filmed.

Another famous myth that underpins culture comes from the British isles as well, in the legends and myths of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. No mere movie shows this, but speeches by politicians, names of local sites, media products, and more all suggest that if one is not familiar with the legends, they are just being oblivious to the world around them. I would argue that for the English and Welsh to forget Arthur they’d have to be destroyed and rebuilt, for it is such a powerful memory. Myth in culture is a valuable thing to be aware of, as it forms a necessary cultural literacy where people are immersed in the knowledge of a culture, while being a part of it as well.

I am not suggesting either that the Arthur legend in particular is not a world wide phenomenon, and it goes far beyond stories of courage and valor. The end of the Arthurian legend stories has Arthur falling mortally wounded and being taken to Avalon where he will sleep until the moment his people need him again. This is not an isolated myth, as later stories in other countries mirrored this, Frederick Barbarossa was said not to be dead but sleeping in a cave where he would awaken when his red beard would wind around his body, Sebastian of Portugal, a young warrior king who died in combat but who’s body was never found was said to be constantly rumored to return, and lastly Charlemagne, of the Holy Roman Empire is at various times have said to visited other kings in their dreams to guide them and help them lead.

We watch movies, read stories, enjoy songs, and the information in them comes from who we are, as a people, where we’ve been, and where we are going.